We had a workblock today, so you had some time to work on your parallel lives assignment. This is due next Tuesday 25 October. Because we have no class until then, feel free to e-mail me if you have any questions.
Your homework is to complete your parallel lives (406) and part B of exercise 503. If you have not completed part A of that exercise, then you must do so, too.
Remember to submit all work in hard copy or online in your Latin folder.
Today we introduced your first colloquy (dialogue), no. 301 in the class folder in Google Drive. Your homework is to learn the colloquy.
We introduced the colloquy by talking about the different stages in Latin’s history:
- Old Latin
- This was the earliest written form of the language, ending around 75 BC.
- The playwright Plautus wrote in Old Latin.
- Classical Latin
- This was the Latin spoken and written by the Roman upper class from the Late Republican Period (c. 75 BC) to about AD 180.
- The great Roman writers all wrote in Classical Latin: Cicero, Virgil, Cæsar, Horace, Ovid, Pliny the Elder, Pliny the Younger, Seneca, …
- It is the point of reference for all other forms of Latin, which is why we are learning Classical Latin.
- Vulgar Latin
- This was Latin spoken by the common people at the same time that Classical Latin was cultivated among the aristocracy. It became the common language throughout the Roman provinces of Italia, Gallia, Hispania and Dacia.
- Late Latin
- This was the successor of Classical Latin, written mostly by Christian authors of the Late Imperial Period, of whom St Augustine is one of the most important.
- Mediaeval Latin
- This was the language spoken and written by bishops, scholars and kings during the Middle Ages. It springs from Classical and Late Latin and looks constantly back to them. It has a wide range of specialised vocabulary because it is a language of learning. St Thomas Aquinas is the greatest author of Mediaeval Latin.
- Church Latin (Ecclesiastical Latin)
- This is the Latin that grew out of Mediaeval Latin as it was used in the Roman Catholic Church. Its pronunciation follows Italian (since the pope lives and works in Rome), and since the twentieth century its spelling and expression has grown closer to the Classical norms.
- New Latin (Neo-Latin)
- This is an attempt to revive Classical Latin as a living language, mostly by American university professors. It tries to adapt the Classical language to the modern world.
- Modern Romance languages
- The Vulgar Latin of Italia became Italian.
- The Vulgar Latin of Hispania became Spanish and Portuguese.
- The Vulgar Latin of Gallia became French, Provençal and Wallonian.
- The Vulgar Latin of Dacia became Rumanian.